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The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, below the larynx


The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, below the larynx. It is one of the most important endocrine glands in the human body and produces mainly three important hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) which regulate our metabolism and calcitonin (which regulates calcium metabolism).


Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid disorder in which the gland is overactive, meaning it works more than the body needs. Morphologically, the thyroid can be normal or enlarged (i.e. show a goitre).

Hyperthyroidism affects women more often and its clinical manifestations vary according to the severity and duration of the disease. Acceleration of metabolism (faster burning) is caused.




Symptoms

In hyperthyroidism, the size of the gland usually increases and the texture of the gland changes, which can lead to a nodular goitre, i.e. a large thyroid with many scattered nodules. Often and for a long time there may be no symptoms or slight symptoms are caused which are often not easily noticed by the patient and the doctor. But in its typical form, hyperthyroidism is characterized by particularly intense and obvious symptoms, so much so that the doctor realizes that he is in front of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism based only on his behavior.




Patients present with:

  • Weight loss that is not justified by exercise or food.

  • Tachycardia (feeling of atrial fibrillation with tachycardia) and other heart rhythm abnormalities.

  • Sweat, hot flashes and heat intolerance.

  • Nervousness and emotional instability.

  • Muscle weakness, tiredness, easy fatigue.

  • Trembling.

  • Exocular (eyes protrude, protrude).

  • Swelling of the thyroid gland (goiter).

  • In men, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. Hyperthyroidism has additionally been blamed for oligospermia, infertility and abnormal sperm morphology, even gynecomastia.

Causes

Hyperthyroidism is not always due to the same cause. Many diseases cause hyperthyroidism, as do various medications. The most common and important cause is Graves' disease (also called diffuse toxic goiter) which is due to an autoimmune disorder. Graves' disease accounts for 70% of hyperthyroidism cases.

The second main form of hyperthyroidism is nodular toxic goiter where one or more nodules (nodules) develop in the thyroid causing them to produce more thyroid hormones than normal.


Treatment

Relieving the patient of hyperthyroidism is the main goal of the treatment, which of course depends on the cause. Treatment weapons include drugs (the antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil, methimazole, and carbimazole) that suppress the function of the thyroid gland, radioactive iodine, and surgery to remove the gland. Surgical treatment (total or near-total thyroidectomy) is definitive and relieves the patient of hyperthyroidism and possible recurrences.



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